Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant from the group of polyphenols. The substance is found in grape skins, red wine and other plant products. It slows down cellular aging, prevents heart disease, cancer.
A little history
Interest in resveratrol has not subsided since the Japanese doctor Michio Takaoka isolated it from the root of the medicinal plant white hellebore. Every year, scientists conduct dozens of new experiments, now proving, now refuting the benefits of the substance.
Having found out what resveratrol is, scientists began to determine its beneficial qualities and effects on the body. Initially, in the course of research, they discovered the beneficial effects of the substance on some vital systems. However, the effectiveness of phytoalexin was still in doubt until D. Sinclair took up the problem. It was he who researched and discovered the beneficial properties of this substance.
In 2003, the scientist published data on the increase in life expectancy. A plant polyphenol, an extract of the white hellebore root, was introduced into the nutrient medium of drosophila flies. This drug eventually extended their life span, increased the activity of males and the fertility of females.
Interesting! In 2009, the beneficial properties of the substance were officially confirmed. But Australian scientist and biologist David Sinclair is still trying to understand what resveratrol is and determine the proportion of its effect on the aging of the body.
The FASEB Journal published the results of experiments proving the anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenol. And in 2011, D. Sinclair’s group revealed an increase in physical activity in rodents who were fed phytoalexin.
Almost all studies were conducted on mice, insects and yeast. Only in 2013, 10 volunteers became participants in the experiment, but the results of the experiment were contradictory. There was also no effect of resveratrol on human life expectancy. Therefore, resveratrol is used only as a dietary supplement.
Laboratory studies have confirmed that resveratrol preparations produce a cardioprotective effect. However, their effect on C-reactive protein has not been proven.
The scientific name of phytoalexin is trans-3,5,4- trans-trihydroxy-stilbene or trans-resveratrol, 3,4′,5-stilbenetriol, Resvida. The name of the INCI classification is Resveratrol.
In nature, resveratrol is synthesized by some plants to fight fungi, bacteria, and UV protection. According to scientists, the substance has a number of pharmacological properties: anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cardio- and neuroprotective, antioxidant, restorative, immunostimulating.
Resveratrol contains many components. In nature , it has two isomeric forms:
- trans-resveratrol (glycosylated);
- cis-resveratrol (free).
The most useful for the body is trans-resveratrol. It is included in the composition of most additives. Unlike cis-resveratrol, this form dissolves well, is quickly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The decay period of glycosylated phytoalexin is 9 hours, and free – 10 minutes.
Trans-resveratrol is characterized by safety and good bioavailability.
Resveratrol acts as a powerful antioxidant, slows down the rate of lipoprotein oxidation and the bonding of blood cells. It also improves microcirculation, stimulates the formation of nitric oxide.
- condition – solid powder;
- color – white or straw;
- smell – nutmeg;
- melting point – 255 ° C, and boiling point – 449 ° C at atmospheric pressure of 60 mm Hg;
- molecular weight – 228.25 g/ mol;
- chemical formula – C14H12O3;
- subclass – diphenyloxide;
- category – secondary metabolites.
According to the chemical structure, the polyphenolic compound is an aromatic polyketide.
Resveratrol is a natural substance. It is contained in many berries and fruits. There is especially a lot of it in the skin of grapes and red wines: Cabernet Sauvignon, Red Bordeaux, Merlot, Pinot Noir.
There are other food sources of resveratrol, for example, cocoa (0.05 mg/100 g), bitter chocolate (0.03 mg/100 g), Japanese mountaineer plant (0.15 -1.70 mg/1 g), peanut butter (1.3 mg/100 g).
The effect of resveratrol on the body
Getting into the digestive tract, and then into the liver, phytoalexin combines with heteropolysaccharides and forms sulfate couplings, which are involved in metabolism, as well as:
- exhibit antidiabetic, hypolipidemic activity;
- improve the condition of tissues, stimulate the production of collagen and elastin;
- prevent the development of oncology;
- suppress viral infections (herpes, flu);
- reduce the risk of heart and vascular diseases;
- stimulate the synthesis of progesterone.
Acting as a neuroprotector, resveratrol also prevents the formation of beta-amyloid in the brain, leading to senile dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. The substance preserves the genome of cells, protects the body from the negative effects of the environment, normalizes the level of sugar and cholesterol in blood plasma. It is recommended to take it:
- people living in large metropolitan areas or working at harmful enterprises;
- suffering from heart and vascular diseases;
- patients with diabetes mellitus;
- persons with a predisposition to varicose veins or thrombosis.
Taking supplements with resveratrol is also recommended for cancer patients and people undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The drug also helps with frequent stress, fatigue, excessive physical and mental stress. In sports, this substance is used to build muscle mass, improve performance, increase strength, endurance.
The lack of resveratrol can provoke the development of the following diseases:
- problems with the liver, gallbladder;
- cardiovascular pathologies;
- Alzheimer’s disease;
- joint damage;
- type 2 diabetes mellitus and related ophthalmological diseases;
Products containing resveratrol cannot fill the daily need for this trace element. Therefore, it is recommended to cover the deficit with food additives.
Excess resveratrol occurs due to excess dosages and is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- stomach pains;
- deterioration of appetite.
Sometimes allergic reactions also occur:
- redness of the skin.
With a prolonged overdose, the acid balance is disturbed, heart rhythm interruptions occur, sometimes blood pressure increases, kidney failure develops. But the most dangerous consequence of an excess of the substance is the risk of cancer.
How to apply
The main forms of resveratrol release: capsules, tablets, solutions. You can take them both before and after meals in the morning, so as not to cause overexcitation or insomnia. Athletes are recommended to drink drugs with this substance 20-30 minutes before training.
The recommended dose of resveratrol is 100-200 mg per day. In exceptional cases, the norm can be increased to 400 mg.